Caswell County Genealogy

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Tourgee, Albion Winegar

Tourgee, Albion Winegar

Male 1838 - 1905  (67 years)

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  • Name Tourgee, Albion Winegar 
    Birth 2 May 1838  Williamsfield, Ashtabula County, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Reference Number 30538 
    Death 22 May 1905  Bordeaux, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Burial Mayville Cemetery, Mayville, Chautauqua County, New York Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I29920  Caswell County
    Last Modified 29 Mar 2024 

    Father Living 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother Living 
    Relationship natural 
    Family ID F11942  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Kilbourne, Emma,   b. 30 Sep 1840, Lincoln County, Ontario, Canada Find all individuals with events at this locationd. 25 Dec 1915, Mayville, Chautauqua County, New York Find all individuals with events at this location (Age 75 years) 
    Marriage 14 May 1863  Columbus, Franklin County, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Reference Number 428564 
     1. Tourgee, Aimee Lodolska,   b. 19 Nov 1870   d. 1909 (Age 38 years)  [Father: natural]  [Mother: natural]
    Family ID F11941  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart
    Last Modified 29 Mar 2024 

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBirth - 2 May 1838 - Williamsfield, Ashtabula County, Ohio Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarriage - 14 May 1863 - Columbus, Franklin County, Ohio Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDeath - 22 May 1905 - Bordeaux, France Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    Albion Winegar Tourgee
    Albion Winegar Tourgee

    Carolyn Karcher on Tourgee
    Albion W. Tourgee

    Tourgee. Milton Chronicle. The Wilmington Star (Wilmington, NC), 24 Aug 1878
    Pharaoh Glass Drowning. Greensboro Patriot in The Weekly Sentinel (Raleigh, NC), 10 Dec 1867
    Rape Trial of George Lea. The Raleigh News (Raleigh, NC), 6 April 1873
    Tourgee Bench Warrants Rumored. The Greensboro Patriot (Greensboro, NC), 5 February 1873
    Bricks Without Straw. The Weekly Star (Wilmington, NC), 15 October 1880
    Color-Blind Justice Albion Tourgee and the Quest for Racial Equality from the Civil War to Plessy v. Ferguson by Mark Elliott. Book Review, Richmond Times-Dispatch Ricmond, VA
    Carpetbagger's Crusade, Otto H. Olsen. Book Review. The News and Observer (Raleigh, NC), 21 Nov 1965
    Tourgee's Long Fight Against Segregation. The Fresno Bee (Fresno, CA), 30 April 1972 P. 1
    Tourgee's Long Fight Against Segregation. The Fresno Bee (Fresno, CA), 30 April 1972 P. 2
    Mrs. Albion Tourgee Contempt of Court. The Charlotte News (Charlotte, NC), 5 Sept 1890
    Albion Winegar Tourgee by Gerard Chapman. The Berkshire Eagle (Pittsfield, MA), 3 March 1987
    In My Opinion John G. Lea and Albion W. Tourgee. The News and Observer (Raleigh, NC), 3 Oct 1935

  • Notes 
    • Albion Winegar Tourgee (1838-1905)

      Albion Tourgee (1838-1905)

      (click on photograph for larger image)

      1861: Tourgee enlisted in the 27th New York Volunteers and in July receives a wound in his spine.

      1862: Tourgee is granted the bachelor's degree from the University of Rochester. In July he goes to Columbus and receives a commission as first lieutenant in Company G of the 105th Ohio Volunteers.

      1863: Tourgee married Emma Kilbourne on 14 May 1863 in Columbus, Ohio.

      1865: Albion Tourgee arrived in North Carolina and settled in Greensboro on 14 October 1865.

      1867: Tourgee edited a Republican newspaper, the Union Register, in Greensboro on 3 January. The paper fails by 14 June and is transferred to Raleigh.

      1868: Tourgee participated in the constitutional convention in Raleigh on 14 January. He plays an important part in lobbying for fair treatment of African Americans.

      Tourgee is elected a judge of the Superior Court, Seventh Judicial District. He begins his duties in August and holds court in, among other towns, Greensboro and Yanceyville.

      Tourgee became Addie Patillo's guardian and she began to live in his house. He starts to educate her and calls her Ada. Her mother, Louisa, is probably serving as the cook in the household.

      Tourgee begins writing a novel, Toinette, based, in part, on Addie's life.

      1869: The Milton Chronicle published a slanderous article suggesting that Tourgee obtained Addie for "immoral purposes." It described Addie as a "yaller gal."

      1870: Superior Court judge Albion Tourgee indicted 18 Klansmen for Wyatt Outlaw's murder in Alamance County, NC, but an amnesty bill from the legislature resulted in their never going to trial.

      1895: Tourgee argued before the United States Supreme Court on behalf of Homer Plessy, a gentleman of "one-eight African blood," in the famous Plessy v. Ferguson segregation case. He lost the case the following year and the "floodgates" of oppressive Jim Crow laws were opened.

      Toinette: A Novel, Henry Churton (Albion W. Tourgee) (1874).

      The reviewer who published the following obviously had little regard for Albion Winegar Tourgee:

      Book Description: NY, 1875, 510(6)pp. Churton was the pseudonym of Albion W. Tourgee (Wright II, 2523: DAB implies this novel publ. earlier but Wright makes no reference there to). This is an extremely good copy w/some rubbing to edges of bkstrp, cvr & bkstrp gilt bright, worn at top of bkstrp. Tourgee brought infamy to his Huguenot heritage & contempt for his birthplace (Ohio) by his carpetbagger behavior in North Carolina following the Civil War, where he brought shame to the title of "Judge." His only deviation to good was found in his writing & only one of those (Fool's Errand) is respected in any way. Prolific (over a dozen entries in Wright III) he also ed. several short lived magazines (Continent, for instance). Some people think his writing improved as he grew older. Black Americans. Bookseller Inventory # A4609509315

      At some point (1868) Adaline Pattillo became part of the Albion Winegar Tourgee household and was raised by him. Her story is told in Color-Blind Justice: Albion Tourgée and the Quest for Racial Equality from the Civil War to Plessy v. Ferguson, Mark Elliott (2006). A fictionalized version of the life of Adaline Pattillo was written by Albion W. Tourgee in 1874 using the pseudonym "Henry Churton": Toinette: A Novel, Henry Churton (1874). This book was republished in 1881: A Royal Gentleman: A Novel (Originally Entitled "Toinette"), Albion W. Tourgee (1881). The 1881 version included an expanded preface by Tourgee and sixteen illustrations. And, while no page-by-page comparison has been made, it does appear that Tourgee rewrote some of the book, especially the final chapters. At a minimum, he renamed some of the chapters.


      Carpetbagger's Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgee, Otto H. Olsen (1965).

      Color-Blind Justice: Albion Tourgee and the Quest for Racial Equality from the Civil War to Plessy v. Ferguson, Mark Elliott (2006).

      Toinette: A Novel, Henry Churton (1874).

      A Royal Gentleman: A Novel (Originally Entitled "Toinette"), Albion W. Tourgee (1881).

      A Fool's Errand by One of the Fools, Anonymous (Albion W. Tourgee) (1879).

      Karcher, Carolyn L. A Refugee From His Race: Albion W. Tourgee and His Fight Against White Supremacy. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

      Published in 1879, Albion Tourgee's A Fool's Errand was an enormously popular book in its time. It was based largely on Tourgee's actual experiences in Greensboro, North Carolina during Reconstruction. A Fool's Errand is the fictional story of Comfort Servosse, a man of French Canadian descent. It follows him briefly as he joins the Civil War on the Union side, then returns home after the war and resolves to move his family to the South. He purchases a decayed plantation called Warrington in Rockford County; the state to which he moves is never identified. In his new home, Servosse almost immediately makes a name for himself as a radical Yankee--or carpetbagger--and arouses the hostility of the neighbors in the community. The rest of the story follows his increasing involvement on the behalf of former slaves in the community and his opposition to the activities of the Ku Klux Klan

      Interspersed in this story are several digressions and conversations in which Servosse, his friends, and even the narrator discuss the numerous problems facing the South during the time of reconstruction. The author describes in detail various issues and attitudes regarding those issues, even to the point of describing in detail northern and southern attitudes about themselves and each other both before and after the war. He also describes several reconstruction plans. Numerous digressions and "letters" seem to be indictments against the federal government in Washington, blaming some of the violence and trouble in the South on Washington's unwillingness to step in where required. His other major additions have to do with the national decline of the KKK and the general failure of reconstruction governments to take hold and transform the South in terms of culture or law.

      This book can be found online at Documenting the American South.

      Captain Ball on the Stephens Murder, Daily Record (Greensboro, North Carolina), 2 and 3 February 1911.

      Bennett College was founded August 1, 1873 as a normal school for seventy African American men and women (former slaves). The school's founder Albion W. Tourgee was an activist in the second half of the 19th century who championed the cause of racial equality contributed greatly to the colleges' inception. The school held its inaugural classes in the basement of Warnersville Methodist Episcopal Church North (now St. Matthew's United Methodist) in Greensboro. Bennett as a coeducational school at the time (offered both high school and college level courses), and remained so until 1926. The year after its founding, the school became sponsored by the Freedman's Aid Society and Southern Education Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Bennett remained under the Freedman's Aid Society for 50 years. In 1878, newly emancipated slaves purchased the land which the colleges stands today. Hearing of what was being done, New York businessman Lyman Bennett provided $10,000 in funding to build a permanent campus. Bennett died soon thereafter, and the school was named Bennett Seminary and a bell was created in his honor. Hearing of Bennett's philanthropy his coworkers continued his mission by providing the bell for the school.

      Source: Wikipedia Bennett College Article.

      Dear Sir, This is to inform you to hold no more Courts in Carolina. You have had your day. If you ever hold another or attempt it you will share the fate of Mr. W. Stevens [Senator John W. Stephens]. It is ordered you leave the state . . .

      By order of the KKK

      Albion Tourgee Letter 1870

      Volume V, Number 1, Elon Law Review has the symposium, "A Radical Notion of Democracy: Law, Race, and Albion Tourgee, 1865-1905." Contributions include an introduction by Sally Green, "Reflections on Albion Tourgee's 1896 View of the Supreme Court: A "Consistent Enemy of Personal Liberty and Equal Rights," by Michael Kent Curtis (Wake Forest); "The Past as Prologue: Albion Tourgee and the North Carolina Constitution," by Judge Robert N. Hunter, Jr.; "The National Citizen's Rights Association: Precursor of the NAACP," by Carolyn L. Karcher (Temple, Liberal Arts); "The Legitimacy of Law in Literature: The Case of Albion W. Tourgee," by Brook Thomas; and "Adaline and the Judge: An Ex-Slave Girl's Journey With Albion W. Tourgee," by Naurice Frank Woods, Jr (UNC-Greensboro, African-American Studies). Touree was a Greensboro former, lawyer, judge, and novelist best known perhaps for representing Homer Plessey before the United States Supreme Court in Plessey v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).

      Judge Tourgee gave Adaline opportunities few former slaves experienced a chance to survive when others around her succumbed to ravages of an openly hostile post-war environment, to be educated at a level beyond the grasp of most freedmen, and, indirectly, to see the country beyond the confines of the segregated South. More importantly, Tourgee allowed her to experience the love of a father, something A. A. Pattillo could never give her. But the Judge could not live her life for her, and Adaline had to fulfill her destiny on her own terms. After teaching school for two years in Dublin, Virginia, she married Leroy William Woods in 1878. From that union came seven children. Their sixth child was named Albion Tourgee Woods.

      Adaline (Addie) Pattillo Woods died at age ninety-four in Gary, Indiana on October 4, 1950, while living with one of her sons. She was buried in Fern Oak Cemetery in that city. It is lamentable that she was not returned to Greensboro to rest not far from the places spent with the Judge [Tourgee] and where she raised her children and cared for her grandchildren. Adaline once told Emma [Tourgee] that she regretted "so much that I will have to rear my children up in the south," but it was her home and she found a way to see that they had the best advantages growing up under increasingly strict Jim Crow policies. She also informed Emma that, "I am trying to train them up to be good" and she succeeded. Most of her children and many of their spouses became successful businesspersons, doctors, lawyers, and educators. Adaline played a major role in shaping their lives and instilling in them many valuable lessons learned from Albion Tourgee. All her children would remember the story of Adaline's journey with the Judge and pass it on to the next generation.

      Source: Woods, Frank Naurice, Jr. "Adaline and the Judge: An Ex-Slave Girl's Journey with Albion W. Tourgee." Elon Law Review, Volume 5, Issue 1 (2013).

      Albion Winegar Tourgee, 1838-1905

      Impressed by the needs and opportunities of the postwar South, the Tourgees migrated to North Carolina in 1865 and leased a nursery near Greensboro. Tourgee's hostility toward Confederates and his equalitarian ideals soon impelled him into Reconstruction politics and an alliance with the state's small faction of consistent Unionists. In 1866 he organized Loyal Reconstruction Leagues, championed Negro rights and a radical Reconstruction, published and edited two radical newspapers, and attended the Philadelphia Southern Loyalist Convention. The enfranchisement of the blacks in 1867 opened a new opportunity, and Tourgee was elected to the constitutional convention of 1868 and became one of its most influential delegates and a vigorous prom oter of political, legal, and economic reform. He is considered especially responsible for the judicial reforms of the Reconstruction constitution. From 1868 to 1870 he served as one of three code commissioners rewriting the state's law, and in 1868 he was elected a state superior court judge.

      During his six years as a judge, Tourgee provoked intense opposition with his outspoken, effective, and equalitarian Republicanism. Like all Republicans of Yankee origin, he was stigmatized as a carpetbagger and was considered "for many years the most thoroughly hated man in North Carolina." His judicial circuit was a center of racial conflict and Ku Klux Klan atrocities, including the brutal assassinations of Wyatt Outlaw and John Walter Stephens in Alamance and Caswell counties respectively. Nonetheless, Tourgee also won recognition for his ability, candor, and courage. He was an excellent judge, and his role in reforming the law brought praise. Becoming one of Greensboro's leading citizens, he was active in a variety of community affairs and was a founder of the Negro school that became Bennett College. He promoted industrial and railroad development and conducted one of the region's early wood-turning industries. Despite ostracism, persecution, and frequent danger, Tourgee proved himself an able and involved citizen of his adopted state, and much in his conduct and achievement demanded respect. There were some remarkable exchanges of mutual admiration between Tourgee and his Southern foes, but Reconstruction politics and the issue of race drove an implacable wedge between them.

      Source: DICTIONARY OF NORTH CAROLINA BIOGRAPHY edited by William S. Powell. Copyright (c) 1979-1996 by the University of North Carolina Press.

      See: Albion Winegar Tourgee Biography

      From John Green Lea's 1919/1935 "Confession"

      "Immediately after the surrender of General Lee, in April, 1865, a bummer named Albion W. Tourgee, of New York, from Sherman's army came to Caswell County and organized a Union League, and they were drilling every night and beating the drums, and he made many speeches telling the negroes that he was sent by the government and that he would see that they got forty acres of land."

      The anti-lynching crusader Ida B. Wells (1862-1931) recalled spending "all day" reading Tourgee's novel about Black Reconstruction, "Bricks without Straw" (1880); quoted a long passage from his newspaper column in her tract "Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases" (1892); and memorialized him in her autobiography as "the Negro's best friend."

      "Men Are Burned at the Stake in Our Free Country": Albion W. Tourgee's Antilynching Journalism" by Carolyn L. Karcher (University of Maryland) in Resources for American Literary Study, Vol, 30, 2005. Published By: Penn State University Press.

      "From Days of Reconstruction: Story of the Arrest and Prosecution of a North Carolina Sheriff in Trying Days" by Captain Ball

      "I am here enjoying the fine air and scenery of a most beautiful country. Keuka Lake is a gem among the smaller lakes of New York State. Wild Indian tribes formerly had uncontrolled possession and one can look out upon this charming lake and almost can hear their war-whoops and in imagination can see the canoes of the dusky warriors darting across its pellucid waters.

      "All fighting men have some sort of a battle-cry. I do not think the war-whoop would disturb me very much, for I have often heard the rebel yell, which, although disagreeable, was not wholly effacing.

      "I lived for twenty-five years among the people who had uttered it and found them with hatreds and affectations like other people. While living there, many things worth of notice and remembrance passed under my observation. I now recall the trial of a North Carolina sheriff by a military commission in Charleston.

      "I was employed in the years 1867-8 in the services of the Second Military district, comprising the Carolinas, as assistant judge advocate of the district, under General Ed. R. S. Canby. I have never seen General Sickles but once and I am sure he never heard of me. So the silly story that I was his private secretary was a pure invention. (The insufferable meanness of stating as the truth what is not known to be true, for a supposed political benefit, is inconceivable to honest minds.) It would have been no disgrace, however, to have been private secretary to General Sickles, many of whose General orders have been retained in the statutes of North Carolina.

      "My usual duties were to review the proceedings of all the military courts in the two States and to report to the commanding general, each morning, the cases passed upon the preceding day for his final action. The cases related almost entirely to the trial of soldiers for offenses against military law, and had nothing to do with the civil government of the two States.

      "Complaint had been made to General Sickles before the commencement of the administration of General Canby, that excessive cruelty had been practiced upon one William M. Johnson, in North Carolina, by Jesse C. Griffith, sheriff of Caswell county. These charges had been put together by our old friend, Judge Touragee [sic], author of 'A Fool's Errand,' who wrote frequent letters of complaint to General Sickles, which were left over by the retiring officer to his successor, Col. Edgar W. Dennis, Judge Advocate of the Second Military District, soon after my arrival in Charleston August, 1867, directed me to review the written statements of Judge Tourgee, with a view to the prosecution of Griffith, if the evidence seemed to justify it. I perused the letters and Johnson's averments very carefully, and my judgment was against proceeding further. Col. Dennis seemed surprised at the conclusion reached, for he had been led to believe that the case was one of unmitigated harshness and cruelty. He gave to General Canby my verbal report, with the result that it was determined by the General and his judge advocate to thoroughly sift the matter. I was instructed to prepare charges and specifications.

      "A military commission was organized, with General Robert O. Tyler as president and several officers of high rank as associates. General Canby appointed me special judge advocate of the court.

      "Griffith was charged with 'Misconduct in Office,' and the specifications were to the effect that he, having charge of the jail wantonly, unnecessarily, maliciously and cruelly confined Johnson, who was committed to Griffith's custody by order of the Superior Court of Caswell county, under conviction of burglary, 'In an apartment other than that provided by law, to-wit, in an iron cage, nine feet square by six feet high," and that Griffith maltreated Johnson by binding him inside of the cage with an iron chain of about the length of six feet. It was charged that Johnson was confined in the cage 'without fire or sufficient clothing, or other means of warmth in the winter time,' and it was alleged as a reason that Johnson had deserted from the army of the so-called Confederate States, etc. The jail was in Yanceyville, the same time where John W. Stephens was afterward killed. (It will be remembered that Mr. Josiah Turner alleged in his complaint against Douglas, that he was confined in the room where Stephens had been made away with and was accused of murdering him.)

      "Griffith was arrested and brought to Charleston for trial. He was a typical Southern back-county sheriff, a large man, more than six feet high, with broad shoulders, decidedly stooping, very strong with a shuffling gait and was clad in homespun, the product of his county. He wore an air of dogged determination, seeming to have braced himself for rough treatment.

      "He came into the judge advocate's office in the Citadel, accompanied by Judge Thomas Settle, whom he had brought as a witness to his good character. This was the first time I had seen Judge Settle, a man whom all admired, even his enemies; and I then little thought he would afterward become my near neighbor, with premises adjoining. (Nor did I suppose I should ever live in the same neighborhood with Judge Tourgee, or ever see him).

      "Griffith, being introduced, I inquired if he had counsel. Much to my disappointment he replied that he was too poor to employ a lawyer. As he had no one to help him it threw upon me the responsibility of seeing to his defence, that no injustice was done him. Had he been defended by an attorney, the easier task would have devolved upon me of presenting only one side - that of the prosecution.

      "While it has nothing to do with my story, I hope it is not improper to say that I have served in very many cases as judge advocate, in the field, during the Civil War (in the Union army, of course), and had noticed that mere soldiers, without legal acquirements, when serving in such capacity, thought it their duty to convict and gave defendants no chance. This was contrary to my notion of the duties of the office and therefore I was always careful to acquaint myself with a prisoner's defense, so that it might be presented to the court for what it was worth.

      "On this theory the trial went on. Griffith was treated as a man, which was so unexpected that the hard lines of his face relaxed and he breathed more freely. But indeed, he was in the hands of gentlemen of the very highest character for probity and intelligence; for where can be found better example of honor and just manhood than in the high grades of officers of the regular army of the United States?

      "As the result of a faithful investigation Griffith was acquitted and General Canby, after reviewing personally all the evidence, approved the findings of the court, which he would not have done had they not satisfied him.

      "I had little thought, when I met Griffith in Charleston that I should ever see him again; but at spring term 1869, of the Caswell Superior Court, he was in attendance and Judge Tourgee was presiding. Among the first to greet me was Griffith and without question he was glad to see me. His friendliness and unmistakable and was extended to me because, in Charleston I had treated him as man. His attentions were so profuse as to be embarrassing. He introduced me to every man we met and said for me a good word to every one, and of course he knew nearly all the men of his county. When I went into the bar, he made me known, with flattering mention, to the lawyers, among whom I recall Governor William A. Graham, Col. Thomas Ruffin, General Alfred M. Scales, Col. Junius I Scales, Hon. John Kerr, and that fine man, John H. Dillard, who for a wonder had no handle to his name but whose legal requirements were inferior to none. My old friend (as he latter became), J. R. Bulla, solicitor, was there with his kind, brown eyes and bushy eye-brows, his brain full of quaint conceits. Uncle Jimmy Morehead had come over from Greensboro by easy stages, driving his old sorrel horse (of the masculine gender, as I remember). Uncle Jimmy was not seeking employment, but came a veritable Nestor, among the moderns, because it was his habit, as every one knew.

      "All of these good-hearted men have passed over the river and have received their reward; while I am left to tell the story to such persons as may desire to know it. Men come and go and their places are filled by other men; and so it will be to the end of time.

      "In consequence of Sheriff's attentions, I was employed in enough cases to pay me well, without delay; and was also placed upon a pleasant footing with the gentlemen of the bar, who always afterward treated me with courtesy, although classing me with the carpet-baggers.

      "While at Yanceyville, that week I visited the jail where Johnson had been confined, having some curiosity to see the spot about which so much had been said, and complaints concerning which had cost the government a good deal of money, in the trial of Griffith. The jail was dreary and desolate enough. The 'iron cage' was not iron at all, but woo. It was constructed of upright studding reaching from the floor to the ceiling. There were spaces between the timbers. This contrivance in the Yanceyville jail and other jails, was called a 'cage.' Into the 'cage' was always placed for safe-keeping prisoners under sentence of death, as Johnson was, having been convicted of burglary, which by the laws of North Carolina was a capital offence. Griffith, if a cruel man, was no more so than the laws themselves, and public usage. I have often wondered if Judge Tourgee ever went to see this cage, for he held court many times in Yanceyville and no doubt, being a capable man, he came to know the law. At any rate, Johnson was not hanged, but was released by orders from headquarters at Charleston.

      "It is unlikely that Griffith did not sympathize with the Kuklux. The colored people of Caswell County say so, and some of them claim to have recognized his voice an his great feet, in some Kuklux raids. Indeed it would have been difficult for him to have disguised himself, for no Kuklux gown could have concealed his immense person, the shape of his stooping shoulders, his projecting neck and prodigious feet. If Griffith was elected sheriff time after time by Kuklux votes, in a Republican county, it would be no wonder if he served those who serve him. And so he, like others of his class, combined cruelty with kindness, and crime with gratitude.

      "And for myself, I shall always think kindly of Griffith for doing me a favor, the benefits of which I can trace backwards through many years. Had he visited my house in disguise, at dead of night, with others, to maltreat me and mine, no doubt my feelings would be quite different." -- Greensboro Record, Keuka, N. Y., Nov. 10.

      The Farmer and Mechanic (Raleigh, NC), 6 December 1910.

      Stephens was not the only victim in this new wave of Klan violence. Judge Albion W. Tourgée, a prominent Republican carpetbagger and a close friend of Stephens, reported vividly on the cruelty of the Ku Klux Klan in a May 24 letter to Sen. Joseph Abbott, which was subsequently published in the New York Tribune:

      These crimes have been of every character imaginable…such as hanging up a boy of
      nine years old until he was nearly dead, to make him tell where his father was hidden,
      and beating an old negress of 103 years old with garden pallings because she would
      not own that she was afraid of the Ku-Klux…in the past ten months: Twelve
      murders, 9 rapes, 11 arsons, 7 mutilations, ascertained and most of them on record.29

      29 Albion W. Tourgée to Joseph Abbott, May 24, 1870, published in the New York Tribune, Lowcountry Digital History Initiative, A well-known carpetbagger from Ohio, Tourgée served as the Superior Court Judge of the Seventh Judicial District from 1868 to 1874 and was a good friend of Stephens, who even asked Judge Tourgée to write his last will and testament on Apr. 7 (Brisson, “Civil Government,” 138-9). Tourgée would return to New York in the 1880s and become a civil rights activist and writer. His novel, A Fool's Errand, by One of the Fools, based on his Reconstruction years in North Carolina, included a fictional version of Stephens’ murder; it was well received by audience in the north. For more on Tourgée’s life, see Otto H. Olsen, Carpetbagger's Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgée (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1965).

      Source: Chen, Zirui (Jerry) (2023). "The Great North Carolina Ku Klux Klan Trials: Habeas Corpus, Due Process, and the Southern Redemption of the Fourteenth Amendment, 1870-1871." [Undergraduate Senior Thesis, Columbia University]. Department of History, Columbia University in the City of New York, April 5, 2023.

      Widow of Tourgee Dies in New York

      Mrs. Emma K. Tourgee, widow of Judge Albion W. Tourgee, of North Carolina, died a few days ago at Mayville, near Buffalo, N.Y., aged seventy-six years. Mrs. Tourgee was an author and magazine writer of note. She collaborated with Judge Tourgee in some of his books. Judge Tourgee was a member of the Superior Court of North Carolina and at different times was consul at Bordeaux, France, and vice consul a Halifax.

      Mrs. Tourgee was married to Judge Tourgee when he returned from the Civil War in a wounded condition. Following the marriage, he went to the University of Rochester and completed his studies. He came South during the reconstruction period and became a judge. He sat in some of the famous Ku-Klux-Klan cases and later wrote about them. Leaving the South, Mr. and Mrs. Tourgee moved to Philadelphia and later to Mayville, N.Y. Judge Tourgee died in Bordeaux, France.

      During their life in the South they lived in Caswell County and Greensboro where Judge Tourgee spent a part of his time in his judicial labors and a large part in the construction of ingenuous novels which netted him a fortune of some $50,000, according to men who knew him well. These novels were apparently written in an effort at full justice to Southerners, although in some instances negroes were placed in roles which were unsatisfactory to the white people. "The Fool's Errand" was one of the Tourgee books written in Greensboro and Yanceyville and doubtless his best known one. This was taken as a near apology for the writer's misconception of the South. Tourgee, reference to whose contact with the K.K.K. is made in the foregoing story of his widow's death, is remembered by many of our older citizens as fearless in the face of repeated threats of Ku-Klux manhandling. He is said to have gone North and lost in a magazine venture the money he had made from his books.

      The Reidsville Review (Reidsville, North Carolina), 4 Jan 1916, Tue, Page 1.

      1850 Unites States Federal Census
      Name Albion W Tourgee
      Gender Male
      Race White
      Age 12
      Birth Year abt 1838
      Birthplace Ohio
      Home in 1850 Kingsville, Ashtabula, Ohio, USA
      Attended School Yes
      Line Number 11
      Dwelling Number 39
      Family Number 43
      Inferred Father Valentine Tourgee
      Inferred Mother Rowena Tourgee
      Household Members (Name) Age
      Valentine Tourgee 36
      Rowena Tourgee 28
      Albion W Tourgee 12
      Rosetta Tourgee 3

      1860 United States Federal Census
      Name Albian [Ablion] W Tansqer [Tourgee]
      Age 22
      Birth Year abt 1838
      Gender Male
      Race White
      Birth Place Ohio
      Home in 1860 Kingsville, Ashtabula, Ohio
      Post Office Kingsville
      Dwelling Number 124
      Family Number 135
      Occupation Student At College
      Household Members (Name) Age
      Valentine Tansqer [Tourgee] 46
      Roena Tansqer [Tourgee] 37
      Albian W Tansqer [Tourgee] 22
      Emma R Tansqer [Tourgee] 13
      Edwin W Carpenter

      1870 United States Federal Census
      Name Albin Tourgee [Albion Tourgee]
      Age in 1870 32
      Birth Date abt 1838
      Birthplace Ohio
      Dwelling Number 13
      Home in 1870 Gilmer, Guilford, North Carolina
      Race White
      Gender Male
      Post Office Westminster
      Occupation Judge Supervisor Court Ph Co
      Male Citizen Over 21 Yes
      Personal Estate Value 3000
      Real Estate Value 15000
      Inferred Spouse Emma Tourgee
      Household Members (Name) Age
      Albin Tourgee 32
      Emma Tourgee 29
      Harrison Kilborn 68
      Mary Kilborn 62
      Edgar Nixon 19 [Law Student, Born in Canada]

      1880 United States Federal Census
      Name Albion W. Tourgee
      Age 40
      Birth Date Abt 1840
      Birthplace Ohio
      Home in 1880 Denver, Arapahoe, Colorado, USA
      Street 919
      House Number 352
      Dwelling Number 289
      Race White
      Gender Male
      Relation to Head of House Self (Head)
      Marital Status Married
      Spouse's Name Emma Tourgee
      Occupation Lawyer
      Neighbors View others on page
      Household Members (Name) Age Relationship
      Albion W. Tourgee 40 Self (Head)
      Emma Tourgee 38 Wife
      Lodie Tourgee 9